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【托福写作】名人经典实例素材库--作文素材01.08

2018-01-08 11:36

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    小新又勤勤恳恳地来啦,大家的托福准备地怎么样了呢?今天的主角是我们的大教育家孔子。(๑•ᴗ•๑)

Confucius

Confucius, 551 B.C. – 479 B.C.

    No other philosopher in the world has had more enduring influence than Confucius. For over two thousand years his concept of government, and his ideas about personal conduct and morality, permeated Chinese life and culture. Even today, his thoughts remain influential.

    注:仔细看其中的否定比较句型,词汇的变化

    There was little in his childhood background to predict the remarkable prestige that Confucius eventually achieved. He was born in a small principality in northeastern China, was reared in poverty, and had no formal education. Through diligent study, however, he educated himself and became a learned man. For a while he held a minor government post; but he soon resigned that position and spent most of his life as a teacher. Eventually, his most important teachings were gathered together into a book, The Analects, which was compiled by his disciples.

    注:and表示时间关系的句子,《论语》的说法。

    The two cornerstones of his system of personal conduct were Jen and Li. “Jen” might be defined as “benevolent concern for one's fellow men.” “Li” is a term less easily translated; it combines the notions of etiquette, good manners, and due concern for virtue rather than wealth (and in his personal life he seems to have acted on that principle). In addition, he was the first major philosopher to state the Golden Rule, which he phrased as “Do not do unto others that which you would not have them do unto you.

    注:“己所不欲,勿施于人”的说法。

    Confucius believed that respect and obedience are owed by children to their parents, by wives to their husbands, and by subjects to their rulers. But he was never a defender of tyranny. On the contrary, the starting point of his political outlook is that the state exists for the benefit of the people, not the rulers. Another of his key political ideas is that a leader should govern primarily by moral example rather than by force.

    注:仔细观察这个段落的逻辑展开方式和连接词,可以模仿构造段落。

    Confucius did not claim to be an innovator but always said that he was merely urging a return to the moral standards of former times. In fact, however, the reforms which he urged represented a change from—and a great improvement over—the governmental practices of earlier days.

    注:仔细看破折号表示插入语的这句话。

    At the time of his death, Confucius was a respected, but not yet greatly influential, instructor and philosopher. Gradually, though, his ideas became widely accepted throughout China. Then, in the third century B.C., Shih Huang Ti united all of China under his rule, and decided to reform the country entirely and make a complete break with the past. Shih Huang Ti therefore decided to suppress Confucian teachings, and he ordered the burning of all copies of Confucius’ works. (He also ordered the destruction of most other philosophical works.)

    注:焚书坑儒的故事

    Most Confucian books were indeed destroyed, but some copies survived the holocaust, and a few years later, after the dynasty founded by the “First Emperor” had fallen, Confucianism re-emerged. Under the next dynasty, the Han, Confucianism became the official state philosophy, a position it maintained throughout most of the next two millennia.

    注:灾难的表达法,用“新名词”引出对前一句话程度的解释的表达法。

    Indeed, for much of that period, the civil service examinations in China were based primarily on knowledge of Confucian classics. Since those examinations were the main route by which commoners could enter the administration and achieve political power, the governing class of the largest nation on Earth was largely composed of men who had carefully studied the works of Confucius and absorbed his principles.

    注:当时的公务员考试(表达法)

    This enormous influence persisted until the nineteenth century, when the impact of the West created revolutionary changes in China. Then, in the twentieth century, the Communist Party seized power in China. It was their belief that, in order both to modernize China and to eliminate economic injustice, it was necessary to make radical changes in society. As the ideas of Confucius were highly conservative, the Communists made a major effort to eradicate his influence, the first such effort since Shih Huang Ti, 22 centuries earlier.


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